In their quest to improve strawberry flavor, University of Florida scientists have found the genes behind aromatic chemicals that enhance the fruit’s taste.
These findings will help the university’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Science researchers Vance Whitaker and Seonghee Lee as they study strawberries. As with much fruit, the genes that control aroma and flavor are connected.
“Finding the sources of a strawberry’s smell gets complicated. Aroma comes from more than 100 chemicals, so studying the genetics can become byzantine,” said Mr. Whitaker, a professor of horticultural sciences at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center.
Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Lee are co-authors of a new UF/IFAS study on strawberry flavor. Zhen Fan, now a post-doctoral researcher in Mr. Whitaker’s lab, led the study as part of his doctoral dissertation at the UF/IFAS College of Agricultural and Life Sciences.
For the newly published study in the journal New Phytologist, a team of scientists found the genes behind several dozen aromatic chemicals and the regulators that turn the genes on as the fruit ripens.
First, they harvested more than 300 types of strawberries with different scents. Then they measured the chemicals from each.
They also sequenced DNA of each of the approximately 100,000 genes in a given strawberry.
“Finding the genes that bring out the aroma is a big step forward in understanding the genetics of flavor,” Mr. Whitaker said. “With this knowledge, we are developing tools such as DNA markers to breed more efficiently for flavor.”
UF/IFAS strawberry scientists already use DNA markers in seedlings to test some genes that give strawberries their flavor. That means even before they plant the strawberries, scientists know the fruits taste good. Whitaker and his team keep the ones with the best flavor and get rid of the rest.
“Findings from this new study will allow us to do this for many more genes,” Mr. Whitaker said. “New strawberry varieties with better flavor will benefit the public, but it will also benefit Florida growers by giving them an edge in the market as they compete with growers in Mexico.”
Consumers love a strawberry that tastes good. A 2016 study showed that freshness and taste are the two most important qualities shoppers seek in the fruit.
In Florida, farmers grow strawberries on about 11,000 acres, and the fruit carries a $400 million-a-year wholesale value. Florida grows most of the nation’s domestic winter crop. California produces strawberries near year-round. Nationwide, strawberries are valued at $2.2 billion.